The Glossary is a work in progress and might have to be extended in the future or changed depending on science and technology and societal developments Version 31 December 2007

Glossary for the 21st Century a starting point by Dr. Gregor Wolbring

Term

Definition

Disability

 

 

Medical model of Disability

People disabled by their body-structure related functioning (sub-species typical functioning) 

Social model of disability

People disabled  by the attitudinal and environmental barriers they experience due to their  non normative body-structure related functioning that hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others (species typical being the norm)

Transhumanized medical model of disability

People disabled by their body structure related functioning (everyone not performing beyond species typical functioning).

Transhumanized social model of disability People disabled by the attitudinal and environmental barriers they experience because they do exhibit beyond species typical functioning face that hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others,

Social model of disability, medical model of the person; impaired disabled person (UN Convention on the rights of persons with Disabilities)

disability results from the interaction between persons with impairments (sub-species typical functioning) and attitudinal and environmental barriers that hinders their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others,

Social model of disability,  medical model of the person; impaired disabled person ( ICF)

the outcome or result of a complex relationship between an individual’s health condition and personal factors, and of the external factors that represent the circumstances in which the individual lives

Social model of disability, neutral model of the person

results from the interaction between a person with a given  body structure related functionlng and  attitudinal and environmental barriers persons face due to their  body structure related functioning that hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others,

Social model of disability, social model of the person;  vari-abled disabled person

results from the interaction between a person with a variation in body structure related functioning and  attitudinal and environmental barriers persons face due to their  variation in body structure related functioning that hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others,

Social model of disability, transhumanist model of the person; transhuman impaired person

disability results from the interaction between persons with impairments (species typical functioning) and attitudinal and environmental barriers that hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others,

The person

Disabled

A consequence of the  body structure/function related disability one encounters

Disabled person

Everyone who encounters  body structure/function related attitudinal and environmental barriers that hindesr one’s full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others,

Person with a Disability

Everyone who encounters  body structure/function related attitudinal and environmental barriers that hinders one’s full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others,

Impaired person

Everyone who identifies oneself as having  a subnormative functioning, deficient body based on a species-typical norm.

Vari-abled person

Everyone who   identifies oneself  as having a vari-ability in bodily functioning which differs from the species-typical norm. However one should keep in mind that often people are identified by others as impaired even if the person does

not identify as such.

Vari-abled and disabled person

Everyone who  identifies oneself  as having a vari-ability in bodily functioning which differs from the species typical norm and who encounters   body structure/function related, ableism related attitudinal and environmental barriers that hinder one’s full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.  However one should keep in mind that often people are identified by others as impaired even if the person does not identify as such.

Impaired and disabled person

Everyone who  identifies oneself  as having subnormative, deficient   bodily functioning based on a species typical norm and who encounters  body structure/function related, ableism related attitudinal and environmental barriers that hinder one’s full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.

Transhumanized impaired person (techno poor impaired person)

Everyone who  identifies oneself  as being deficient because one is not able to improve oneself beyond Homo sapiens normative functioning whether through a) external means by shaping the environment, or b) internal means by modifying ones bodily structures.

Transhumanized disabled person

Everyone who is not enhanced beyond Homo sapiens normative functioning whether through a) external means by shaping the environment, or b) internal means by modifying ones bodily structures and who encounters  body structure/function related attitudinal and environmental barriers mostly justified by a transhumanized version of ableism that hinder one’s full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others. However one should keep in mind that often people are identified by others as impaired even if the person does not identify as such.

Transhumanized impaired and disabled person (techno poor impaired and disabled person)

Everyone who  identifies oneself  as being deficient because one is not able to improve oneself beyond Homo sapiens normative functioning whether through a) external means by shaping the environment, or b) internal means by modifying ones bodily structures   and who encounters attitudinal and environmental barriers mostly justified by a transhumanized version of ableism that hinder one’s full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others,

Transhumanized vari-abled person

Everyone who  identifies oneself  as having a beyond species-typical functioning variability in bodily functioning which differs from the species typical norm. This could be employed  by a) external means by shaping the environment, or b) internal means by modifying ones bodily structures      However one should keep in mind that often people are identified by others as impaired even if the person does not identify as such

Transhumanized vari-abled and disabled person

Everyone who  identifies oneself  as having a beyond species-typical functioning variability in bodily functioning which differs from the species typical norm which was achieved through a) external means by shaping the environment, or b) internal means by modifying ones bodily structures  and who therefore encounters attitudinal and environmental barriers mostly justified by an Anti-transhumanized version of ableism that hinder one’s full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.

Ableism

Ableism

A set of beliefs, processes and practices that produce  based on ones abilities a particular kind of understanding of oneself, one’s body and one’s relationship with others of one’s species, other species and one’s environment and includes one being judged by others. Ableism exhibits a favouritism for certain abilities that are projected as essential while at the same time labelling real or perceived deviation from or lack of these essential abilities as a diminished state of being  leading or contributing to the justification of a variety of other isms (1;2)

Transhumanized Form of Ableism(1-3) (generic)

A set of beliefs, processes and practices that perceive the improvement of functioning of biological structures beyond typical boundaries as essential. The transhumanized version of ableism, sees all biological structures as limited, defective and in need of constant improvement beyond biological structure typical boundaries.

The transhumanized version of ableism exhibits the favouritism of  beyond biological structure typical abilities and perceived biological structures as deficient as being in a diminished state of being if they are not enhanced beyond biological structure  typical abilities. (1-3)

Transhumanized Form of Ableism(1-3)(human related)

A set of beliefs, processes and practices that perceive the improvement of human body abilities beyond homo sapiens typical boundaries as essential. This transhumanized version of ableism, sees all human bodies as limited, defective and in need of constant improvement of their abilities beyond homo sapiens -typical boundaries.

This transhumanized version of ableism exhibits the favouritism  of  beyond homo sapiens typical abilities and perceived humans as deficient as being in a diminished state of being human if they are not enhanced beyond homo sapiens typical abilities. (1-3). The transhumanist body ability enhancement can be of three types a) external by shaping the environment, b) internal reversal by modifying bodily structures in an reversible fashion and c) internal non-reversal by modifying bodily structures in a non-reversible fashion

 

Transhumanized Form of Ableism (1-3)(animal related)

A set of beliefs, processes and practices which champions the especially cognitive enhancement of animal species beyond species typical boundaries leading to cognitive or otherwise ‘enabled species’.

Transhumanized Form of Ableism(1-3) (environment related)

A set of beliefs, processes and practices which champions the

a) enhancement of especially the Homo sapiens  beyond species typical boundaries to cope with the environmental challenges to come

b) shaping the environment (geo-engineering, gated biospheres…)

Ability Studies

is the study of the usage of the term ability. It investigates a) the social, cultural, legal, political, ethical and other angles which influence the judgment of any given ability and which leads to the favouritism of one ability over another b) the impact and consequence of the favouritism of certain abilities and rejection of others  c) the consequences of ableism in its different forms and its relationship and impact on other isms d) the impact of new and emerging technologies on ableism and the favouritism towards certain abilities and rejection of other abilities e) what abilities would lead to the most beneficial scenario for the maximum amount of people in the world

 

Ability studies includes among others

          the traditional disabled people,

          the techno poor disabled,(3;4)

          the people who gain enhancements,(5)

          other non human targets for ability modifications,

          new life forms,(6)

 

and looks among others at areas such as

          ableism supported prejudism’s

          ableism differences between cultures

          ableism driven judgement of countries

          ableism and development

          influence of ableism on numerous concepts such as  biological diversity, cultural diversity and culture of peace and interpretation of documents treaties and laws

 

Models (identity) and determinants (interventions) of Health

If one deals with models and determinants of health one in the end deals with two issues. The models of health define the client (animal human) and the cause whereby the determinants define the intervention

Medical model (identity, bodily reality part) of a person

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

·        Medical determinants of medical health of a patient

 

 

 

 

 

·        Social determinants/ interventions of medical health of a patient

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

·        Social determinants/ social well-being intervention of a patient

The person’s bodily reality is viewed as defective directly caused by disease, trauma or other ‘medical health conditions’ leading to a body structure, function that deviates from certain norms. The person obtains the identity label of being an impaired person/person with an impairment, a ‘patient’ with ill medical health, with subnormative functioning. (5)

Within the medical model of health, health is limited to cover “medical health” and is characterized as the normative functioning of biological systems (e.g. in humans or animals) whereas disease/ illness is defined as the sub-normative functioning of biological systems. It excludes interventions in regards to social and spiritual well being which can cot directly be linked to a medical problem. (5) The ‘patient is the target of its intervention whether through cure or the prevention of the appearance.

 

 

 

place the cause of sub-normative functioning within the individual patient’s biological system leading to medical interventions towards the species typical norm on the level of the individual focusing on medical cure, medical individualistic care and individualistic normative rehabilitation as the primary endpoint and at the political level the principal response is to make curative medicine more efficient(5)

 

 

identify external factors as the cause for the “ill medical health” the sub-normative functioning of the individual, the patient and tries to fix the external factors to prevent medical ill health. This includes, for example, the elimination of contaminated water that leads to bacterial or parasitic infections, or job insecurity that contributes to stress and heart disease. (5) It also includes prevention of an impaired person through prevention at birth, deselection on the embryo and fetus level, and preventative measures such as vitamins. At the political level the principal response is to make preventive medicine more efficient(5)

 

 

 

Although some social determinants interventions such as decreasing job insecurity also increase social well being, the performance indicator is a positive change in a medical parameter.

 

 

 

 

Improve the social well-being of the patient through social determinant interventions(5)

Social Health(5)

 

social determinants intervention towards the social well being of a person not labeled as being in ill medical health or in danger of being medical ill(5)

Transhumanized health

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

·         Transhumanized intervention

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

o       Transhumanized medical determinant interventions

 

 

 

 

 

o       Transhumanized  social determinant interventions

 

 

o       Transhumanized  social determinant/social well being interventions

 

all Homo sapiens bodies – no matter how conventionally “medically healthy” – are defined as limited and defective as in ill health in need of constant improvement made possible by new technologies appearing on the horizon (a little bit like the constant software upgrades we do on our computers). Health in this model is the concept of having obtained maximum (at any given time) enhancement (improvement) of one’s abilities, functioning and body structure. (5)

 

 

These interventions see enhancement beyond species-typical body structures and functioning as a therapeutic intervention (transhumanization of medicalization)(5). They can happen on three levels a) external by shaping the environment (transhumanized social determinants), b) internal reversal by modifying bodily structures in an reversible fashion (transhumanized medical determinant) and c) internal non-reversal by modifying bodily structures in a non-reversible fashion (transhumanized medical determinant)

 

 

Enhancement medicine is the new field providing the remedy and maintenance  through surgery, pharmaceuticals, implants and other intervention on the level of the body. The transhumanist model of interventions views science and technology as having the potential to free everyone – the now "all impaired people" from the "confinement of their genes" (genomic freedom) and the "confinement of their biological bodies" (morphological freedom).  (5;7)

 

 

Transhuman public health is the new field which will ensure that social determinant barriers to transhuman interventions are eliminated. It is also the field which would try to enable bodily enhancements mediated through changing the environment

 

 

 

 

 

Improve the social well-being of the patient waiting to be transhumanized through social determinant interventions(5)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

 

      1.   Wolbring, G, NBICS, other convergences, ableism and the culture of peace, http://www.innovationwatch.com/choiceisyours/choiceisyours-2007-04-15.htm, 2007.,Innovationwatch.com webpage

      2.   Wolbring, G, What Convergence is in the Cards for Future Scientists?  http://www.bioethicsanddisability.org/convergence, 2007.,Conference presentation Vienna May 2007 hosted on International Center for Bioethics Culture and Disability webpage

      3.   Wolbring, G, Ableism and NBICS, http://www.innovationwatch.com/choiceisyours/choiceisyours.2006.08.15.htm, 2006.,Innovationwatch.com webpage

      4.   Wolbring, G.Emerging technologies (Nano, Bio, Info, Cogno) and the changing concepts of Health and disability/impairment:  A New Challenge for Health Policy, research and care (2006) Journal of Health and Development (India) 2, 1&2 19-37

      5.   Wolbring, G. HTA Initiative #23 The triangle of enhancement medicine, disabled people, and the concept of health: a new challenge for HTA, health research, and health policy, 2005, ISBN 1-894927-36-2 (Print); ISBN 1-894927-37-0 (On-Line); ISSN: 1706-7855 , http://www.ihe.ca/documents/hta/HTA-FR23.pdf,

      6.   Wolbring, G, Synthetic Biology 2.0, http://www.innovationwatch.com/choiceisyours/choiceisyours.2006.05.30.htm, 2006.,The Choice is Yours Column at Innovationwatch.com

      7.   Wolbring, G, KEY TERMINOLOGIES IN THE FIELD OF DISABILITY: Change through NBICS, talk on the 27th July, 2006 at a World Health Organisation meeting, http://www.bioethicsanddisability.org/whatishealth.html