NBICS With, For, and By the People: What it is, what it means and why it matters

By Dr Gregor Wolbring

Most of us have watched with a mixture of awe and unease the rapid development and application of new biological especially genetic technologies, and have wondered at some point about the ratio of possible dangers and prospective benefits.

Many unresolved philosophical, legal, social, economic and ethical issues still surround the development and application of bio-technology including genetic technology. The situation is now further complicated by the appearance of two new fields called nano-technology (N) and synthetic biology (S). Each of these fields comes with their own sales pitches and philosophical, legal, social, economic and ethical issues. Furthermore increasingly products will appear and are already appearing which are made possible through the convergence at the nanoscale of any combinations of NBICS whereby:

(N)= nanoscience and nanotechnology;
(B)= biotechnology and biomedicine, including genetic engineering;
(I)= information technology, including advanced computing and communications;
(C)= cognitive science (neuro engineering)
(S)= synthetic biology.

The continuing development of NBICS will impact everybody, but many of the issues that are raised are of special concern to disabled and other marginalized people, especially in low income countries. 

Many of the issues raised by NBICS can be found in numerous columns of mine.
I will only give here a brief intro.

What is Nanotechnology?

The term "nanotechnology" was originally coined to describe a way to manufacture something from atomic molecules.(1) This face of Nanotechnology is now generally known as "molecular manufacturing" or "molecular nanotechnology. The positive potential and the ethical, legal, social and issues are easy identifiable in this case and an extensive list can be found on the webpage of the Center for responsible Nanotechnology. The possible impact on trade provides a good illustration of the mixture of effects that nanotechnology can have. On the one hand one might be able to synthesize all kind of goods from the atomic components and that would make the needed elements more easily available. On the other hand this might undercut the value of a natural produce that a country depends on for trade.  

If the story of nanotechnology would have stopped at molecular manufacturing one would have had a very concise task at hand to design ethical, social, legal frameworks which would increase the positive and diminish the negative impacts. However the term "nanotechnology" has evolved into a different meaning. It is used today to mean "nanoscale technology" and "nanoscale sciences" covering research and development products, ideas and processes with controlled size below 300nm (some say below 100nM).(1) Many Nano-Taxonomies exist which highlighting numerous fields, processes and products (1) every single one having positive and negative issues attached to it and each having a unique dynamic around how a positive could turn negative and how a negative could be eliminated and turned to a positive.

The story becomes even more multifaceted if one takes into account that different research and development products, ideas and processes allow for the interaction with other technologies and sciences leading to even a greater variety of products and processes possible which again come with different positive and negative angles.

Nano applications

Numerous lists of anticipated Nano and NBICS products exist (2;3). The National Nanotechnology Initiative (US) envisions applications and products in areas such as the environment, energy, water, weapons and other military applications, globalization, agriculture, and health (e.g., more efficient diagnostics and genetic testing, cognitive enhancement; life extension and enhancing human performance in general) (4). Others, such as the social group of transhumanists(5), believe that advances in NBICS hold the key for extreme life extension to the level of immortality and the achievement of morphological (6), “full reproductive,” and genomic freedom (7).

A recent survey  (8)  identified the following top 10 nanotechnology applications for development: 

It is clear from this list that nanotechnology will have a profound impact on many areas of our lives whether we live in high middle and low income countries. The question which is still undecided is whether the impact will be positive or negative in general and positive for whom and negative for whom in particular. There is more to the issue than nanotechnology or NBICS to the rescue for the ‘poor’(9). As Noela Invernizzi and Guillermo Foladori, in direct response to the top ten nanotechnologies for development list stated, “Despite the optimistic assessments recently offered, experience suggests that nanotechnology could follow the mainstream economic trends that increase inequality. First, the development of nanotechnology faces many of the same problems faced by prior technological developments because large multinational corporations are patenting the majority of the nanotechnology products. Patents are monopolistic guarantees of earnings for twenty years – something that certainly works against the rapid diffusion of the beneficial potentials of this technology for the poor.” (9),(10)

The UN Millennium Project’s Task Force on Science, Technology and Innovation identifies nanotechnology as an important tool for addressing poverty an achieving the Millennium Development Goals.(11)

The ramifications for health are enormous.

Medicine is in most countries the largest or second largest nanotechnology application. A variety of Nanomedicine taxonomies (12;13) and nanomedicine Roadmaps exist.(14) (15) (16). According to Frost and Sullivann, nanotechnological processes in medicine will obtain a sales volume of about $180 billion until 2015. (17)  According to the Freedonia group,(18) “demand for nanotechnology health care products in the US is projected to increase nearly 50 per cent per year to $6.5 billion in 2009 and by 2020, demand for nanotechnology health care products is projected to exceed $100 billion.”(18) Numerous applications are envisioned, in development or already in use for every field of NBICS medicine. (14-16;19)

What is Synthetic biology? (20)

“Synthetic biology is described on the synthetic biology community webpage to mean: (a) the design and construction of new biological parts, devices, and systems; and (b) the re-design of existing, natural biological systems for useful purposes. The very nature of synthetic biology and its envisioned applications makes it an easy target as the next field to converge with NBIC… leading to NBICS.

Generating biological structures/life forms from the bottom up by designing artificial DNA and new artificial letters for the standard four-letter DNA (A,C,G,T) -- allowing for more complex organisms than exist today -- is certainly a big part of the synthetic biology field.

One can easily envision that on the one hand new biological structures/life forms will be modified by adding products from other non-genetic fields; and that on the other these newly designed biological structures/life forms will be added to non-biological structures. Indeed, the linkage of synthetic biology with artificial life was one of the focuses of discussion at the 10th Artificial Life X Conference which was held June 3-7, 2006 at Indiana University. It will be interesting to see future listings in the 'Registry of Standard Biological Parts.'” ETC-Group just published a in depth look at synthetic biology(21) and the European Commission published a piece comparing Europe and North America(22). It is obvious from the writings and applications around synthetic biology that it deserves a lot of attention. As ETC Group writes “A new report by the ETC Group concludes that the social, environmental and bio-weapons threats of synthetic biology surpass the possible dangers and abuses of biotech.”  

The Impact of NBICS (23)

NBICS use, research, and development both embody and shape the perspectives; purposes; prejudices; particular objectives; and cultural, economical, ethical, moral, spiritual, and political frameworks of different social groups and society at large. NBICS not only provides us with new products but it influences and is influenced by how we understand who we are and how we are related to the rest of the world. We see this in a wide range of discourses, areas of action, concepts and trends: 

Discourses:
•           Human security(24)
•           Social Cohesion(25)    
•           Religion, Faith, Traditional Knowledge, Theology
•           Biodiversity
•           Inequity
•           Ethics
•           Law
•           Raising the acceptance level for a given technology
•           Language
•           Self perception and identity (Body politics)(24)
•           Interpreting International treaties
•           Governance
•           Evaluation, measuring, analysis, and outcome tools
•           Trade

Areas of Action: (23):           
•           NBICS for Development(26)
•           the UN Millennium Development Goals(26)
•           Global medical and social health(27)
•           Accessibility
•           Law
•           Water and Sanitation(28)
•           Disaster Management
•           Weapons/War(29)
•           Ethics/philosophy
•           Social science/anthropology
•           Community
•           Networking

Concepts (23):
•           Self Identity Security(24)
•           Ability Security (24)
•           Cultural Identity/Diversity (30;31)
•           Morphological Freedom (6) and morphological judgement
•           Concept of health and disease(19;32)
•           Concept of disability and impairment (19;32)

 
Trends (23):
•           The appearance of enhancement medicine and the acceptance of beyond species-typical functioning (19;32)
•           Moving from curative to enhancement medicine; decrease in curative medicine and the appearance of the transhumanist/enhancement burden of disease (19;32)
•           Moving from human rights to sentient rights
•           Moving from morphological freedom to morphological judgement
•           The appearance of the techno poor disabled (26;32-34)
•          Moving from natural commodity to nanoformulated commodity to atomically synthesized commodity(10)
•          Moving from investigating life to designing life(20;21)

What Is Needed to Tip the Balance in The Direction of Opportunity?

Key issues need to be addressed in order to unlock the potential of nanotechnology and converging technologies for the world’s majority. A variety of documents are available which examine what good nano/NBICS governance might entail(35-41). However these documents are inadequate to tip the balance in the direction of opportunities for the majority of the world population.

1) The social group hierarchy that is evident in the Nanotechnology and NBICS discourse has to change

If one searches the term nanotechnology in combination with different social groups in academic and non-academic databases one obtains the most hits with the combination ‘women and nanotechnology’ and the least hits with combination ‘disabled people or indigenous people and nanotechnology’

Table about hierachy of social groups in regards to NBICS engagement

Conclusion: The nanodiscourse exhibits a hierarchy towards social group involvement with the most marginalized social groups the last visible.

The inclusion of disabled people and indigenous people in the governance of science and technology in general and nano and NBIC in particular is essential for “disabled” and “non-disabled people.” The goal of involving disabled people and indigenous people fits well with the language from six major health promotion conferences the recent statement by the Global Forum for Health Research at the conclusion of Forum 8 Mexico City (42), the UN Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities (43) and the suggestions in other international documents, such as the final documents of the UNESCO World Conference on Science. (44;45) Declaration on Sciences:  article 25,34, 42 (44) and Science   Agenda-Framework for Action article 17,59,79,81,91 (45):

Involving disabled people is not a simple task.  A variety of practical issues have to be resolved if a meaningful continuous engagement of disabled people in NBIC and nano is to become a reality.(23)

A useful tool to tackle the bias of language in the existing discourse might be the BIAS FREE framework. BIAS FREE is an acronym for Building an Integrative Analytical System For Recognizing and Eliminating InEquities (46;47), a tool which was designed to provide a unified approach to detecting biases that derive from any and allsocial hierarchies.
In addition to tackling the bias in languages and social hierarchies evident in the discourse around new and emerging technologies, a new science and technology policy and research agenda has to address a variety of issues I outlined elsewhere(23)

From the beginning, this discussion must actively involve disabled people, indigenous people and other marginalized groups. Their assessment of what they need would inform the development of the research framework and the nature of the research questions.  Several core sets of questions would likely emerge(23). 

2) More Nano (NBICS) forsight is needed

NBICS foresight is absolutely essential as the NBICS invention cycle becomes shorter and shorter as does the time between proof of principle and products roll out. Furthermore the development of discourses around emerging sciences and technology impact on existing discourses in other areas. (19)

3) Social safety must be included in the discourse -- not just medical health and environmental safety

The lack of diversity of stakeholders in the NBICS discourse led to an excessively narrow definition of the issues to be covered.  Many nanoengagements are too narrowly focused on ‘medical health’ safety and environmental safety ignoring good governance and practice and risk evaluation related to social non-medical health impacts and social safety. So far some efforts are underway to look and deal with personal and worker,environmental and ecosystem safety (23;36;39;48). However as in the bio debate social safety is mostly missing in the today’s discourse of NBICS (49) as are disabled people(23). Furthermore most of the above trends are hardly covered in the debate as of yet.

4) An assessment of whether high tech or low tech is more beneficial is needed

Are high tech solutions the best option or are low tech or no tech solutions available and more effective/feasible? It is not self evident and a forgone conclusion that high tech technology is the best or only solution for poverty, hunger and malnutrition and many of the envisioned application of nanotechnology and NBICS for development. (50)  Identifying a potentially beneficial technology is not enough. Nanotechnologies as with every other technology cannot meet the development needs of poor people in developing countries if proper societal, political, cultural, ethical, human rights frameworks do not exist. (51).  

5) One should include social interventions and not just focus on medical interventions

A variety of initiatives are under way to deal with neglected diseases(27;52-54). However all have the same flaw. Take the resolution WHA 59.24  Public health, innovation, essential health research and intellectual property rights: towards a global strategy and plan of action of the 2006 FIFTY-NINTH WORLD HEALTH ASSEMBLY.(54) The resolution talks about “the need to continue to develop safe and affordable new products,” but specifies in a footnote that products “should be understood to include vaccines, diagnostics and medicines.” Nowhere does it target social determinants. Many of the problems with lack of access to medicine, however, are social, and social interventions are needed to deal with the incidence of neglected diseases. Just providing access to medication cannot be the whole focus. Limiting solutions to just medical interventions will have dire consequences.

References

      1.   Wolbring, G, From Nanotech to Nanoscale Technology and Sciences, http://www.innovationwatch.com/choiceisyours/choiceisyours.2006.07.15.htm, 2006.,The Choice is Yours Column at Innovationwatch.com
2.   Institute of Nanotechnology. Research Applications And Markets In Nanotechnology In Europe 2005, 2005, http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reportinfo.asp?report_id=302091&t=t&cat_id=4,
3.   Kostoff, R., Murday, J., Lau, C., and Tolles, W.The seminal literature of nanotechnology research (2006) Journal of Nanoparticle Research 1-21, http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&id=doi:10.1007/s11051-005-9034-9,
4.   M.Roco, W. B. e. Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance: Nanotechnology, Biotechnology, Information Technology and Cognitive Science. 2003. http://www.wtec.org/ConvergingTechnologies/Report/NBIC_report.pdf.  Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht Hardbound.
5.   Wolbring, G, Transhumanism, http://www.innovationwatch.com/choiceisyours/choiceisyours.2006.09.30.htm, 2006.,Innovationwatch.com webpage
6.   Anders Sandberg.  Morphological Freedom -- Why We not just Want it, but Need it. 2001. http://www.nada.kth.se/~asa/Texts/MorphologicalFreedom.htm.
7.   Wolbring, G., (2003) in Living with the Genie (Lightman, A. S. D. D. C., Ed.) pp 139-157, Island Press,
8.   Salamanca-Buentello, F., Persad, D. L., Court EB, Martin, D. K., Daar, A. S., and Singer, P. A.Nanotechnology and the developing world (2005) PLOS Med 2, 5 e97, http://medicine.plosjournals.org/perlserv?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pmed.0020097,
9.   Invernizzi N and Foladori GNanotechnology and the Developing World: Will Nanotechnology Overcome Poverty or Widen Disparities? (2005) Nanotechnology Law & Business Journal 2, 3
10.   ETC Group. THE POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF NANO-SCALE TECHNOLOGIES ON COMMODITY MARKETS: THE IMPLICATIONS FOR COMMODITY DEPENDENTDEVELOPING COUNTRIES, 2005, http://www.etcgroup.org/en/materials/publications.html?id=45, http://www.etcgroup.org/upload/publication/45/01/southcentre.commodities.pdf ,
11.   UN Millennium Project's Task Force on Science, Technology and Innovation and Calestous Juma and Lee Yee-Cheong. Innovation: applying knowledge to development, 2005, 1-84407-218-5, http://bcsia.ksg.harvard.edu/BCSIA_content/documents/TF-Advance2.pdf,
12.   Neil Gordon & Uri Sagman. Nanomedicine Taxonomy of the Canadian Institute for Health Research (CIHR);  2003, http://www.regenerativemedicine.ca/nanomed/Nanomedicine%20Taxonomy%20(Feb%202003).PDF,
13.   Freitas RNanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine (2005) Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine 1, 1 2-9
14.   The National Institute for Health (NIH, U. Roadmap for Nanomedicine . 2005. http://nihroadmap.nih.gov/nanomedicine/index.asp .
15.   René de Groot, Jonathan Loeffler Ulrich Sutter. Roadmap Report Concerning the Use of Nanomaterials in the Medical & Health Sector, 2006, The project was funded by theEuropean Community under the "Sixth Framework" Programme (Contract No NMP4-CT-2004-505857)., www.nanoroad.net/download/roadmap_mh.pdf,
16.   Morten Bøgedal, M. G. J.-C. G. H. H. S. L. I. M. M. M. C. N. V. W. Nanotechnology and its Implications for the Health of the EU Citizen. 2003. http://www.nanoforum.org/index.php?scc=publications&s_nfp=1&modul=showmore&folder=99999&action=longview_publication&scid=162&code=de594ef5c314372edec29b93cab9d72e&userid=1977453&wb=031058&. http://www.nanoforum.org, 97.
17.   Nanoroadmap, 2005, 6, http://www.nanoroadmap.it/, http://www.nanoroadmap.it/sectoral%20reports/sect%20report%20health.PDF,
18.   Infoshop.  US NANOTECHNOLOGY HEALTH CARE PRODUCT DEMAND TO REACH $6.5 BILLION IN 2009, 2005, http://www.the-infoshop.com/press/fd29054_en.shtml , http://www10.nanotechcafe.com/nbc/articles/view_article.php?section=CorpNews&articleid=184241
19.   Wolbring, G. HTA Initiative #23 The triangle of enhancement medicine, disabled people, and the concept of health: a new challenge for HTA, health research, and health policy, 2005, ISBN 1-894927-36-2 (Print); ISBN 1-894927-37-0 (On-Line); ISSN: 1706-7855 , http://www.ihe.ca/documents/hta/HTA-FR23.pdf,
20.   Wolbring, G, Synthetic Biology 2.0, http://www.innovationwatch.com/choiceisyours/choiceisyours.2006.05.30.htm, 2006.,The Choice is Yours Column at Innovationwatch.com
21.   ETC Group. Extreme Genetic Engineering: An Introduction to Synthetic  Biology, 2007, http://www.etcgroup.org/upload/publication/602/01/synbioreportweb.pdf,
22.   European Commission 6th Framework Programme, NEST-New and Emerging Science and Technology. Synbiology: An Analysis of Synthetic Biology Research in Europe and North America, 2006, http://www2.spi.pt/synbiology/documents/news/D8%20-%20Synthetic%20Biology%20Research%20Assessment.pdf ,
23.   Wolbring, G, Scoping paper on Nanotechnology and disabled people, http://cns.asu.edu/cns-library/documents/wolbring-scoping%20CD%20final%20edit.doc, 2006.,Center for Nanotechnology in Society Arizona State University
24.   Wolbring, G, Human Security and NBICS, http://www.innovationwatch.com/choiceisyours/choiceisyours.2006.12.30.htm, 2006.,Innovationwatch.com webpage
25.   Wolbring, G, NBICS and Social Cohesion, http://www.innovationwatch.com/choiceisyours/choiceisyours.2007.01.15.htm, 2007.,Innovationwatch.com webpage
26.   Wolbring, G.Nanotechnology for Health and Development (2006) Development 49, 4
27.   Wolbring, G, Kyoto Style Disease Intervention Credit Trading and Neglected Diseases, http://www.innovationwatch.com/choiceisyours/choiceisyours.2006.10.30.htm, 2006.,Innovationwatch.com webpage
28.   Wolbring, G, Nanowater, http://www.innovationwatch.com/choiceisyours/choiceisyours.2006.08.30.htm, 2006.,Innovationwatch.com webpage
29.   Wolbring, G, NBICS and Military Products, http://www.innovationwatch.com/choiceisyours/choiceisyours-2007-01-30.htm, 2007.,Innovationwatch.com webpage
30.   Wolbring, G.Solutions follow perception: Nano-Bio-Info-Cogno-technology (NBIC) and the concept of health, medicine, disability and disease (2004) Alberta Health Law Review 12, 3 41-47http://www.law.ualberta.ca/centres/hli/pdfs/hlr/v12_3/12-3-10%20Wolbring.pdf,
31.   Wolbring, G,.Disabled people: A social group with cultural identities?, 2006, Media Development, http://www.wacc.org.uk/wacc/publications/media_development/2006_1/disabled_people_a_social_group_with_cultural_identities,   World Association for Christian Communication.
32.   Wolbring, G, KEY TERMINOLOGIES IN THE FIELD OF DISABILITY: Change through NBICS, talk on the 27th July, 2006 at a World Health Organisation meeting, http://www.bioethicsanddisability.org/whatishealth.html , 2006.,International Center for Bioethics, Culture and Disability
33.   Wolbring, G, Ableism and NBICS, http://www.innovationwatch.com/choiceisyours/choiceisyours.2006.08.15.htm, 2006.,Innovationwatch.com webpage
34.   Wolbring, G.Emerging technologies (Nano, Bio, Info, Cogno) and the changing concepts of Health and disability/impairment:  A New Challenge for Health Policy, research and care (2006) Journal of Health and Development (India) 2, 1&2 19-37
35.   INTERNATIONAL RISK GOVERNANCE COUNCIL SURVEY ON NANOTECHNOLOGY GOVERNANCE Volume A. The Role of Government; IRGC Working Group on Nanotechnology working paper no. 1, 2005, http://www.irgc.org/irgc/projects/nanotechnology/_b/contentFiles/Survey_on_Nanotechnology_Governance_ _Part_A_The_Role_of_Government.pdf    ,
36.   International Risk Governance Council (IRGC), Nanotechnology Project, http://www.irgc.org/irgc/projects/nanotechnology/  , 2006.,International Risk Governance Council (IRGC) webpage
37.   IRGC. INTERNATIONAL RISK GOVERNANCE COUNCIL SURVEY ON NANOTECHNOLOGY GOVERNANCE Volume B. The Role of Industry; IRGC Working Group on Nanotechnology working paper no. 3, 2006, http://www.irgc.org/irgc/projects/nanotechnology/_b/contentFiles/Survey_on_Nanotechnology_Governance_-_Part_B_The_Role_of_Industry.pdf ,
38.   IRGC. INTERNATIONAL RISK GOVERNANCE COUNCIL SURVEY ON NANOTECHNOLOGY GOVERNANCE Volume D. The Role of NGOs, 2006, http://www.irgc.org/irgc/projects/nanotechnology/_b/contentFiles/Survey_on_Nanotechnology_Governance_-_Part_D_The_Role_of_NGOs.pdf   ,
39.   Ortwin Renn and Mike Rocowith Annexes by Mike Roco and Emily Litten. International Risk Governance Council (IRGC) White paper Two on Nanotechnology Risk Governance, 2006, http://www.irgc.org/irgc/_b/contentFiles/IRGC_white_paper_2_PDF_final_version.pdf,
40.   Alfred Nordmann. Nano-Bio-Info-Cogno-Socio-Anthro-Philo- HLEG Foresighting the New Technology Wave Converging Technologies " Shaping the Future of European Societies, 2004, http://europa.eu.int/comm/research/conferences/2004/ntw/index_en.html, http://europa.eu.int/comm/research/conferences/2004/ntw/pdf/final_report_en.pdf,
41.   Roco MC. International Dialogue on Responsible Research and Development of Nanotechnology , 2004, http://www.nsf.gov/home/crssprgm/nano/mcr_04-0616_usandrespnano_meridian_3.pdf, http://www.nsf.gov/home/crssprgm/nano/dialog.htm; for a list of participating countries see http://www.nsf.gov/home/crssprgm/nano/dialog04_listparticipantshort040618.doc   ,
42.   Global Forum for Health Research, Forum 8 Mexico CityHealth Research for Equity in Global Health, 2004, http://www.globalforumhealth.org/forum8/forum8-cdrom/Statement.html.
43.   Wolbring, G, NBICS and the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities , http://www.innovationwatch.com/choiceisyours/choiceisyours.2006.09.15.htm, 2006, http://www.innovationwatch.com/commentary_choiceisyours.htm.,Innovationwatch.com webpage
44.   UNESCO. UNESCO World Conference on Sciences DECLARATION ON SCIENCE AND THE USE OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE. 1999. http://www.unesco.org/science/wcs/eng/declaration_e.htm.
45.   UNESCO. UNESCO World Conference on Sciences,  SCIENCE AGENDA-FRAMEWORK  FOR ACTION . 1999. http://www.unesco.org/science/wcs/eng/framework.htm.
46.   Margrit Eichler and Mary Anne BurkeThe BIAS FREE Framework: A New Analytical Tool for Global Health Research (2006) Canadian Journal of Public Health 97, 1 63-68
47.   Mary Anne Burke and Margrit Eichler (2006). The BIAS FREE Framework: A practical tool for identifying and eliminating social biases in health research Global Forum For Health Research.,http://www.globalforumhealth.org/Site/002__What%20we%20do/005__Publications/010__BIAS%20FREE.php
48.   ICON, International Council on Nanotechnology ICON, http://icon.rice.edu/, 2007.,ICON
49.   Wolbring, GNanoRegulation: For Whom, With Whom, By Whom, For What?, 2006, http://www.bioethicsanddisability.org/Regulation.htm.http://www.nabisconference.com/2006/NABIS%20webpage/Nabis8_11Presentations/Wolbring.doc  http://www.nabisconference.com/2006/NABIS%20webpage/Nabis8_11Presentations/Wolbring.doc NABIS Conference Webpage.
50.   UNICEF. VITAMIN AND MINERAL DEFICIENCY in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2004, http://www.unicef.org/media/files/Africa_DAR.pdf ,
51.   Cientifica, TNT Llog Global Nanotechnology - The where, the when and the why., http://www.cientifica.com/archives/2005_01.html, 2005.,Cientifica blog
52.   Consumer Project on Technology. Medical Treaty R&D. 2005. http://www.cptech.org/workingdrafts/rndtreaty.html.
53.   Consumer Project on Technology. Medical Treaty R&D WHO signon letter . 2005. http://www.cptech.org/workingdrafts/rndsignonletter.html.
54.   World Health Assembly, WHA59.24 Public health, innovation, essential health research and intellectual property rights: towards a global strategy and plan of action, http://www.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA59/A59_R24-en.pdf#search=%22WHA59.24%22, 2006.,World Health Organization

 


 

 

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